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High Inlet versus Low Inlet Baghouse Design

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A critical part of the dust collection design process is where to position your baghouse inlet. The purpose of the baghouse inlet is to draw dirty, dust laden air into the system so the air can be filtered.  In this article, we will focus on the design factors that help determine a system’s inlet placement (high versus low), can velocity, and the advantages of a high inlet versus a low inlet baghouse.

Baghouse Inlet Design

Dust Collection System Design Factors

When designing a dust collection system, we consider your dust properties and the characteristics of your work environment carefully to identify the best solution.  Below are the five most critical dust collection design elements.

Dust Collection Design Factors

During the design process, we consider two primary characteristics that influence baghouse inlet placement:

  • The amount of dust you are bringing into the collector
  • The heaviness of the dust

When you have a large amount of dust and that dust is heavy, a dust collection system may benefit more from a low inlet design. When heavy dust enters the unit at the bottom of the system, the natural force of gravity will pull the dust down. Conversely when you have light to medium dust loading and very light dust, a dust collection with a high inlet design would typically be best.

However, even in similar environments the dust loads, work environment, and space can vary drastically. Our best recommendation is to work closely with your U.S. Air Filtration equipment specialist. Understanding all the details and nuances to your specific project will allow us to make the best design recommendations.

Dust Collection Assembly

Can Velocity and Dust Collection Design

Can velocity is the speed at which air moves from low in the baghouse to high. The higher the can velocity, the faster air moves up in the system.  We calculate can velocity based on your CFM, the size of the collector, and your space restrictions.

During the design process, your equipment specialist can help determine if there will be a high enough can velocity that would require a high inlet. A high inlet will eliminate or counter can velocity. This way, dust can drop or if the dust is heavy enough, the dust will overcome upward air movement and drop out without issue.

CFM, space restrictions, and dust loads are all straightforward questions. But depending on the answers provided there can be different results. Here are two different scenarios that could occur during the design process that require two different inlets.

Baghouse Inlet Scenario 1:

  • No design preference for the inlet.
  • No space issues
  • In this case, it’s possible for a customer to have a system that’s designed to hold 700 filter bags, 8’ in length, with a low inlet. This scenario is possible with just about any type of dust. All that is needed to drive that air to cloth ratio down as low as possible, is to eliminate as much can velocity as you can. As a result, your dust collection system will work as intended with a low inlet design

Baghouse Inlet Scenario 2:

  • No design preference for the inlet.
  • Yes, there are space constraints.
  • In this example, if there is only a 15’ by 15’ space to install a dust collection system, the system must be taller and require longer filter bags of 12’ to adequately handle the dust load. filter bag. By design, there will be a much higher can velocity even though the same air to cloth ratio is being used. This is because the filter bag is longer, the dust collector is thinner, more vertical rather than wider, and shorter. These factors all increase can velocity. Because the can velocity is higher, a high inlet would be required to allow better dust dropout.

High versus Low Inlet Dust Collector Design Advantages

When considering a high versus low inlet for your dust collection system, there are certain design advantages that are considered based on dust type and application. There are additional costs for a high inlet baghouse. If your project will allow for a low inlet design, then that’s the route we recommend. Our goal is to help you avoid spending more money than necessary both upfront and in long term maintenance costs.

However, in certain situations it may be worth investing in a high inlet.  These situations include:

  • When you are worried about the dust not dropping out of the airstream
  • If you’re concerned the bags won’t clean properly
  • If you are afraid you are going to lose suction over time

In these cases, it may be worth spending the extra money to design a dust collection system with a high inlet, to avoid these issues. You will also have the added benefit of avoiding additional maintenance problems down the road.

Baghouse Design

Additional Baghouse Inlet Options

What if your application has light dust, but high dust loading? An additional option in this case would be an end inlet. This helps bring in the dust in high, but as it hits a baffle, it redirects the air directly downward. In this scenario, heavy part particulate hits the baffle, then slow down, and drop out. Then it kicks the rest of the air down below the bag, so you still have can velocity. However, we reduce the amount of dust in the airstream so much that can velocity is not as much of a concern as if it was just a standard low inlet baghouse. The disadvantage to an end inlet is those baghouses tend to be considerably larger because you must have space for that air to hit the baffle.

The Design Process with U.S. Air Filtration

Baghouse Design

At U.S. Air Filtration, our V.P. of Engineering, generally recommends a low hopper entry or side entry inlet baghouse with a full blast height plate/drop-out box plenum, if the particulate from the process is highly abrasive and/or has a bulk density of greater than 70 lbs./CF. (I.e., Sand, silica, glass, etc.) If you have questions regarding this exception, please contact U.S. Air Filtration’s engineering department for further explanation.

At U.S. Air Filtration, we understand that a dust collection project may just be one piece of a larger project for you. Our engineers are here to help solve your concerns and design a solution that best fits your application and facility. If you need to speak with an equipment specialist, please feel free to contact us at 888-221-0312 or email [email protected]. If you’re just starting your dust collection project, access our “Dust Collector Purchasing” article for more information on design considerations, airflow, air-to-cloth ratio, and more.

Guide to Calculating Dust Collection CFM

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CFM is a measurement of airflow related to air conditioning, heating and ventilation environments. In dust collection applications CFM measures the amount of air per minute that can be moved from a space.

If you’re not familiar with how to calculate dust collection CFM, the process can be intimidating. In this article we will help you understand our approach to calculating CFM requirements for you. Along with the questions you should be asking your dust collection engineering firm to identify the optimal solution for your plant.

Dust Collector Purchasing Guide

Dust Collection CFM Questions to Consider

  • Where is your dust being created?
  • Are you using taps or hoods at the points of dust creation?
  • What type of dust are you working with?
  • What are your dust characteristics?

One of the first questions we ask is, “Where is your dust being created?” This allows us to understand where your pick-up points are, and how many of those need to factor in when calculating your CFM.

Methods of Dust Collection

How Much Does a Dust Collector Cost

Once we understand where the dust is being created, then the next question becomes, “What’s the best way to collect the dust at that dust creation point?” Three common methods are:

  1. Tap
  2. Hood
  3. Articulating Arm

Many facilities include source taps at every machine. If there are no taps, then a hood or a smaller pickup point can be added. For example, a hood can be added above a table to capture dust if there is a need to constantly maneuver around the table.

If there is movement happening around the machine in different ways (e.g., leaning over a machine) then there may be a need for an articulating arm. An articulating arm allows a way for the hood or pick up duct to be as close as possible to the actual creation of the dust. As U.S. Air Filtration helps you calculate the right CFM, we will work together with you to gather these details machine by machine.

What’s Needed to Calculate CFM?

You may not know the CFM you need, but here are the things you can provide that will allow us to help solve that for you.

  • How close can we get to the machine?
    • For example, if the machine has a six-inch tap, then we would know that would require a six-inch duct. Generally, when the machine is designed, your pickup points are also designed with the intention to efficiently capture dust.
  • Blueprint of your facility or a roughly drawn layout
    • This helps us understand the distances between the machines, walls, and where the dust collection system will be placed.
  • Photos of your machines. This helps us identify if you are using taps or hoods.
    •  Tap
      • If there are no taps, how are people using the machine?
      • Is the machine stationary?
      • Does someone need access 360 degrees around the machine?
    •  Hood
      • If there are no hoods, what is the size of the machine or table that’s creating dust? This helps us properly size a hood and with those dimensions we can look at velocity at the hood.

Then, depending on the weight of the dust, we get a better understanding of the specific velocity needed to move the dust and the duct size that’s required. These two factors together can help us get to the right CFM for your dust collection project.

Dust Collection Source Capture versus Room Capture

Dust Collection CFM

In the case of a grinding application, you may do all your grinding in one room and want to ventilate the entire room itself.

While the initial calculations and process to ventilate one room may seem easier, it’s not necessarily the best in terms of cost. Our recommendation is to get as close as you can get to the source of the dust, which allows you to move less air. This can mean a smaller system, which can lower the price tag of your project while also capturing dust more efficiently.

For an everyday example, let’s say you have dust all over your kitchen floor and you don’t want to vacuum every square inch of it. Then your option would be to try and suck the dust up through a hood. That requires you to pull a large amount of air very quickly, which in turn requires much greater force from the fan to capture the dust. In contrast to that, if you have a vacuum and a hose, then you can pick up everything closely using a very small amount of air and suction requirements.

While it may be tempting to “just ventilate the room”, keep in mind that every CFM comes with a price tag. Moving 100,000 CFM versus 10,000 CFM is going to be more costly. The details that go into calculating your CFM may be cumbersome at first, but it will save you from spending a considerable sum of money in the long run.

Negative Impacts of Miscalculating CFM

The Dangers of an Undersized Dust Collector

When designing a dust collection system, it’s best to err on the high side of CFM rather than the lower side. It’s very difficult is to make a dust collection system larger once it’s in place. It’s much easier, if necessary, to damper the fan down or add a smaller fan.

Correcting for a larger than needed dust collection system involves adding more filter media. Upfront costs are slightly higher, but your system will work well, and you’ll be able to remove dust out of the way as you intended. The reverse isn’t true. If your system is too small, it’s very difficult to add filter media. Getting the dust out of your facility will always be an uphill battle. So, to reiterate when in doubt error on the high side.

  • If you underestimate CFM, you won’t capture the dust that you need to capture.
  • The system will not work the way it was designed. Therefore, you will spend a large sum of money on maintenance expenses due to increased wear and tear..
  • If you overestimate CFM, the dust collection system will work just fine, but long term you will pay 20%-30% more for a system.

Advantages of Working with USAF

U.S. Air Filtration Dust Collection Engineering

One of the advantages of working with U.S. Air Filtration is that we have a team of engineers with over 40 years dust collection experience who can gather the details you provide and calculate the numbers to get you to the right CFM.

Calculating CFM and designing a system is a complex engineering process.  We do all the leg work for you, so you don’t have to.

If you would like to speak to an engineer about your specific project, contact us at 888-221-0312 or email [email protected]

Top 3 Reasons Filter Bags Fail

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When calculating the life expectancy of your filters, there are multiple environmental factors that come in to play. Filters can last anywhere from a few weeks up to 5 years or more, but it really varies. The top factors that can influence filter life are:

But what if your filter bags fail sooner than expected? Here are a few reasons they may be failing prematurely.

  1. Dust Characteristics
  2. Poor Fit & Installation
  3. Undersized Dust Collector

Why are my filter bags failing?

Dust Characteristics

Moisture

Standard dust collection systems are designed for dry dust environments. If you have over 20 percent of moisture or oils in your process (e.g., working with fertilizers or concrete) you may need to consider a different type of filtration system. If you continue to operate with uncontrolled moisture, the physical properties of your dust may change due to the increase in water content. Certain types of dust can then become sticky or heavy which would cause your dust cake to build quickly, affect the ability of dust to fall off during cleaning and thereby creating a scenario where your filter bags fail prematurely. An excess of moisture can also cause excessive dust build-up in your duct work, rotary valve, and inside the dust collector’s walls. Common industries that deal with moisture are:

Industries with Moisture

  • Chemicals
  • Pharmaceuticals
  • Cement

Abrasive Dust

When considering how abrasive your dust can be, consider the hardness of the material being filtered along with the shape. If material is abrasive, a filter bag media with the ability to resist the additional wear and tear is generally recommended. Different types of filter media more resistant to abrasive dust are:

Filter Bag Media Used with Abrasive Dust

The velocity of your airflow can also make your dust more abrasive. Highly abrasive dust may require your housing to be fabricated in stainless steel, titanium or other costly materials that are able to withstand long term wear.

Filter Bag Fit & Installation

Baghouse Filter Installation

Filter Bag Fit

To help give your filter bags better life expectancy, make certain to have the proper bag to cage fit. Filter bags with the correct flex allows the precise amount of momentum to happen when the filters hit the cage. Filter bags with insufficient flex are too rigid and can prevent dust build-up from properly falling off during the cleaning process. The general recommendation is to have between 1/4″ to no more than 3/8″ pinch on your filter bag on each side of the cage. Filter bag media with sensitive bag to cage fit are:

Sensitive Bag to Cage Fit

  • Fiberglass
  • PPS

If you have filter bags with the following medias, also consider oversizing your filters due shrinkage that can occur in temperatures above 450 Degrees F.

Sensitive to Shrinkage

Filter Bag Installation

Proper installation of filter bags allows for optimal dust handling and cleaning efficiency. When it comes to filter bag installation, common errors to watch out for are:

  • Top LoadThe groove between the double beaded snap band should be set into the cell plate. For a video tutorial on the proper way to install this type of filter bag, visit this guide here.
  • Bottom Load – Raw top bags should be folded over the cage with enough material to allow for proper and tight clamp placement.

Undersized Dust Collector for CFM

Industrial Baghouse

A couple of the biggest problems we see people run into with an inappropriately sized dust collector are:

  • Consistently clogged filters
  • Reduced filter life
  • Higher maintenance costs 

To avoid the dangers of an undersized dust collector, consider both CFM and Air to Cloth Ratio. For example, if you have an air to cloth ratio that is too high, the dust you are trying to collect embeds into the filters too fast for your system to efficiently pulse. You end up with rapid build-up of dust, which ends up clogging your filters and making your dust collector work even harder than it should be.

Conclusion

Prevention is the best method for avoiding filter bags failing prematurely and total dust management. Achieving longer filter bag life means the design of your dust collection system should be correct for your specific application from the very beginning. 

At U.S. Air Filtration our specialists are available to help with the design of your dust collection system. Or if your filter bags fail continuously, we can help guide you to the right solutions. For assistance now, contact us at 888-221-0312 or email [email protected].

How to Solve Damaged Freight Issues

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Unfortunately, shipments from any dust collection supplier you work with can sustain damage during transit. While you cannot control what happens in-transit, you can control how you respond to freight that arrives damaged.

How to Solve Damaged Freight Issues

How Damaged Freight Affects Your Bottom Line

Shipping claims and getting replacements for damaged freight can be a frustrating to deal with, but the true price tag of this issue can cost far greater than just a few broken boxes or lost product. Other costs to your business may include:

Minimizing Damaged Freight Issues

The U.S. Air Filtration logistics team understands that packaging can play a role in the potential of damaged freight. Your shipment will be handled by many people along the way. So we keep this in mind when we prepare your dust collection order for shipment in the U.S. Air Filtration warehouse, and we follow a system of best practices that can help protect your items as much as possible.

  • Inspection –To avoid shortages we inspect, count, and match up the items to your packing slip.
  • Right Packaging – Our team makes sure that the box is suitable for the item that is shipping.
  • Proper Seals – We distribute tape evenly to ensure your product stays fully sealed in its package. For palletized items, we shrink wrap your freight multiple times to ensure all boxes remains together.
  • Appropriately Sized Pallets – Our warehouse team makes certain that the right sized pallet, also known as a skid, is the right one for the weight and size of the shipment.
  • Clear Shipping Labels – Labels are legible and durable. Paperwork such as a bill of lading or packing slips are placed inside of a protective sleeve.

How to Solve Damaged Freight Issues 2

How Do I Receive Freight?

There is one golden rule of receiving freight that every receiving dock should follow. Do not accept or sign the bill of lading before checking freight for damage, concealed damage, or missing parts.

It’s critical to pay close attention and inspect all details when you receive a freight shipment. You have the right to record exactly what is missing or damaged. If damaged freight is not recorded, you may not be able to file a successful freight claim.

When you receive freight, here are the steps you should take.

Box Count & Damage Inspection

  1. Count the number of boxes received. Compare the box count to the bill of lading for accuracy.
  2. Inspect the shipment for any visible damages. Ensure all packages are consistent.

Are there any damages present? If yes, then take immediate action with the following steps.

  • Accept the shipment as damaged.
  • Write down all damages or missing box count on the delivery slip.
  •  Take photos to showcase the condition of goods when received.

TIP: Do not refuse a shipment or discard any damaged freight. Your shipment may get damaged further, or worse, lost in storage. Without your dust collection products in-hand, getting replacements or a freight claim solved can take several weeks longer.

TIP: Keep a copy of all related documents like the bill of lading, packing slip, and copy of your invoice.

Communicate Issues

TIP: There is a limited window of time to submit a freight claim for resolution.

Report any damages to your supplier within 24 hours of receiving your shipment and they will help your take the next steps. If your shipment was from U.S. Air Filtration here is what you can do:

  • Contact your account manager directly or the USAF main line at 1-888-221-0312.
  • Send all photo evidence and a copy of the delivery slip to USAF.
  • USAF will help start the freight claim process and get you replacements ASAP.

Damaged freight is a headache that no one wants to deal with. They strain your time and bottom line. If you would like to get help with your damaged shipment, submit your information with our interactive receiving checklist below. Once your information is received, a U.S. Air Filtration rep will be in touch to help.

Receiving Checklist

Low Temp Filter Bag Media Guide

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Top 3 Low Temp Filter Bag Media

If your plant is operating from ambient to 275 degrees Fahrenheit, there are a few low temp filter media bag options you can choose to use in your dust collection system. To guide you to the right one, we’ve gathered information on the three commonly used medias in low temperature dust collection applications. The following filter medias are generally for dry dust applications with very little moisture and no issue heats or acids.

Low Temp Filter Bag Media

Polyester

Polyester is one of the most economical low temp filter bag medias used in the dust collection industry because of its reliable performance in a broad range of applications and availability. This media is used in industries including food manufacturing, woodworking, metalworking, building products, and energy. Polyester is one option if you are continuously operating between ambient – 275 degrees Fahrenheit, and have less than 10% moisture.

Polyester Filter Bag Media

CharacteristicRating
Relative Cost$
Max Continuous Operating Temperature275 Degrees F.
AbrasionExcellent
Energy AbsorptionExcellent
Filtration PropertiesExcellent
Moist HeatPoor
AlkalineFair
Mineral AcidsFair
Oxygen (15%+)Excellent
ProsCons
Low cost and widely available filter media.Does not perform well with moist heat.
Applications
Food Manufacturing
Woodworking
Metalworking

Polypropylene

Polypropylene is another relatively low-cost, low temp filter bag media. The big difference between polyester and polypropylene is that polypropylene can withstand some moisture. If your continuous operating temperatures are between ambient – 170 degrees Fahrenheit, and you have more than 10% moisture in your application, then Polypropylene could be the right fit for your baghouse.

Polypropylene Filter Bag Media

CharacteristicRating
Relative Cost$
Max Continuous Operating Temperature170 Degrees F.
AbrasionExcellent
Energy AbsorptionGood
Filtration PropertiesGood
Moist HeatExcellent
AlkalineExcellent
Mineral AcidsExcellent
Oxygen (15%+)Excellent

 

Acrylic

Another option for applications with more than 10% moisture is Acrylic. This is similar to polypropylene but more expensive. Acrylic can handle moisture better than polyester and has a higher temperature rating. If you need to run between 200-265 degrees Fahrenheit, but you have moisture, you could use acrylic.

Acrylic Filter Bag Media

CharacteristicRating
Relative Cost$$
Max Continuous Operating Temperature265 Degrees F.
AbrasionGood
Energy AbsorptionGood
Filtration PropertiesGood
Moist HeatExcellent
AlkalineFair
Mineral AcidsGood
Oxygen (15%+)Excellent

Assistance with Low Temp Filter Bag Media

If you have a unique application we can help get some answers to your questions. Reach a dedicated account manager at 888-221-0312 or email [email protected]

Are you looking for high temperature media options? Then check out our guide here.

Air Pollution Control & Managing Industrial Dust

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Disclaimer: The contents of this industrial dust blog are intended to be general safety guidelines. All businesses will still need to refer to OSHA, NFPA, and local ordinances required for their business.

Industrial Dust Guide

Dust builds up in your home may simply be a nuisance you take care of while spring cleaning. But in the workplace, dust can become a serious hazard if not properly handled. To get a better understanding of the negative effects of dust in the workplace we will provide a brief overview what industrial dust is, how industrial dust is created , potential dangers you should plan for, and the benefits of a properly engineered dust collection system.

Industrial Dust Guide

What is Industrial Dust & How is it Created?

Dust consists of small particles of dry matter that build-up on hard surfaces such as floors, tools, industrial equipment, ducts, etc. Industrial dust can generate more frequently than household dust. This is because it generates from the daily from the manufacturing or production process. For example, a small woodworking shop could generate dust from activities like sawing, grinding, or cutting. Industrial dust can even break out during processing. Another example, in an agricultural facility process dust can come from sugar, flour, grains, etc.

Common Types of Industrial Dust

  • Wood – Activities like sanding, high speed cutting, low speed cutting, paning etc. can create dust which is both explosive and fire prone.
  • Food Particulate– Certain food particulate can be explosive, abrasive and fire prone. This can encompass a wide variety of particulate such as flour, grains (corn, rice), soybeans, and more.
  • Cement & Concrete – This dust is abrasive but considered to be less explosive and prone to fire.
  • Paper Products – Dust created from paper products can be both explosive and fire prone.
  • Paint Powder – Paint pigments can be highly explosive
  • Pharmaceuticals – Pharmaceutical dust like dry powder and coating are both explosive and fire prone.
  • Plastic, Chemicals, Stone, Minerals , Metal etc.

Is Industrial Dust Dangerous?

The build-up of combustible dust is serious hazard in the workplace. Airborne dust presents a safety hazard to employees. Many types of industrial dust may contain carcinogenic properties that would require removal to keep employees safe, healthy, and to comply with government regulations.
Airborne dust may also be highly flammable, and safeguards must be implemented to prevent the risk of a dust explosion.

Conditions for a Dust Explosion

  • Oxygen
  • Enclosed space
  • Ignition source
  • Combustible dust at the right concentration level

When you are working in an industry that operates with combustible dust, explosions and fires are a constant threat. If you are taking the right steps to ensure a safe working environment you are more likely to avoid a fire or explosion that would cost you the safety of your employees, thousands of dollars in lost production, and regulatory fines. Combustible dust can present itself in a variety of applications. Below are just some of the types of industries that work with combustible dust.

Common Examples of Combustible Industrial Dust

  • Agriculture (grain, flour, sugar, etc.)
  • Wood
  • Metals (aluminum, zinc bronze, etc.)
  • Rubber
  • Chemicals (coal, Sulphur, etc.)
  • Pharmaceuticals
  • Pesticides
  • Plastics

There are no short cuts to minimizing dust hazards and ensuring the safety of your employees. But understanding if you are working with combustible dust is the first step in prevention.

Regulation of Air Pollution Control

Many industrial industries in the U.S. must comply with strict air pollution control standards. These standards are set by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), National Fire Protection Agency (NFPA), OSHA, or local governing entities like the AQMD in California.

OSHA regulates industries that are susceptible to combustible dust. When implementing OSHA’s set of standards, you are creating a safe working environment, avoiding property and economic loss from an explosion, avoiding regulatory fines. To learn more about OSHA’s safety standards for combustible dust, visit their guide here.

The NFPA (National Fire Protection Agency) is another agency that publishes a list of guidelines to help minimize injury or death from combustible dust. The following codes are related to the most combustible types of dust (e.g., sugar, wood, fine aluminum):

  • 664, Standard for the Prevention of Fires and Explosions in Wood Processing and Woodworking Facilities
  • 484, Standard for Combustible Metals
  • 61, Standard for the Prevention of Fires and Dust Explosions in Agricultural and Food Processing Facilities

How a Properly Engineered Dust Collection System Supports Air Pollution Control

5 Benefits of a Dust Collection System

Dust collection systems are engineered and designed to filter airborne industrial dust particles and debris that can cause damage to plant equipment, create a hazardous work environment, and negatively impact plant production. The top 5 benefits of a dust collection system are:

  1. Meet Compliance Regulations and Standards – All agencies require industrial facilities to maintain and meet air quality standards to ensure a safe and clean environment for their plant, employees, and the surrounding community.
  2. Boost Productivity – An accumulation of dust particles and debris on industrial equipment can interfere with overall plant performance. A dust collection system can collect these dust particles before they can interfere and compromise the health and performance of your manufacturing equipment.
  3. Improve Product Quality – Dust can settle and accumulate on products during the manufacturing process. This has a negative impact on the quality and consistency of finished goods. A dust collector will reduce and effectively capture these dust particles, allowing for product quality to improve and maintain consistency.
  4. Enhance Health and Safety Standards – Inhalation of hazardous dust affects human health and a dust collection system is vital to removing these hazards and to keep employees safe.
  5. Preserve the Quality of Equipment – As dust particles and debris are created inside a manufacturing facility, the contaminated dust will settle onto other surfaces such as computer systems and manufacturing equipment. This dust buildup can be harmful and result in malfunctioning equipment. It can also create unnecessary, frequent, and costly maintenance to keep dust and debris from accumulating. With a dust collector system purifying and collecting dust particles, the chances of excessive dust build-up is minimal.

In addition to adding a dust collection system to your plant, you can also consider some of these dust removal options and explosion venting strategies.

Baghouse Dust Removal Options

  • Enclosed Box – A simple pipe system funneling dust into an enclosed box, placed underneath your hopper, is one dust removal option.
  • Drum or Bag – A removable drum or bag can be a simple and easy solution to collecting and disposing dust.
  • Rotary Valve – Rotary valves (also known as airlocks, rotary feeders, or airlock feeders) help transition material from a dust collector to a drum or bin.
  • Screw Conveyor for Baghouse Dust Collectors – Large baghouses with heavy dust loads typically use screw conveyors. The screw conveyer would transport dust away from the collector, then send it to a designated disposal area.

The best method of dust removal from your hopper is dependent on some of the following components:

Explosion Venting Strategies

Common Venting Strategies

•Preventative Maintenance Plan: In conjunction with a protection strategy, every facility should implement a well-designed and operated preventative maintenance plan. Perform regular checks on the health of your dust collection system to prevent more serious issues.

•Explosion Vent or Panels: Explosion vents or panels are designed to rupture at a set pressure (PStat). When a source of ignition meets a fuel source with sufficient oxygen present, an ignition will occur. As the ignition begins, the pressure inside of the vessel will increase rapidly. Depending on the material’s Kst value, the pressure rise may be slow or extremely rapid. As the ignition progresses, the internal pressure will meet the PStat rating of the explosion panel. The explosion panel will rupture, venting the ignition gasses. The explosion vent provides a relief avenue for the expanding gasses, but the pressure in the vessel will continue to rise until it reaches the Pred pressure. This is the maximum pressure of the ignition event when explosion vents are functioning, so this is usually the pressure rating the vessel is designed to withstand.

You can use explosion panels with a short length of ducting to allow for interior use without flameless venting. They do require replacement once a rupture occurs, but they are simple, cost-efficient, and easy to install. Explosion vents are typically useful on baghouses and cartridge dust collectors.

• Explosion Latch: Explosion latches work under the same principle as the explosion panels, but they are not single use. This is a more cost-effective option (versus explosion panels) when you have  a large baghouse or large quantity of vent area.

Additional Venting Strategies

• Flameless Venting: Flameless venting can consist of a flame arrestor element, vent panel, and flanged housing. This combines the techniques of explosion venting and flame arresting. You can also install a flame arrestor element over a standard explosion vent. When the vent ruptures, the burnt dust and flames enter the flame arrestor element. The element helps to contain the hazardous dust and flames and prevents it from exiting, where it could potentially ignite a secondary explosion or endanger employees. While flameless venting does stop flames from exiting the vessel, there will be extremely hot gasses exiting the flameless vent. When using flameless venting, make sure to pay close attention to the vents proximity to personnel areas. If possible, always aim flameless vents away from regularly occupied areas.

• No Return Valve: Protecting the dust collector from over-pressure is essential, but it is equally important to stop a deflagration propagation back to the operator space. To prevent this, a No Return Valve is needed in the inlet duct. This valve is a weighted damper that is held open by the air flow during normal operation, allowing air and dust to pass through to the dust collector. In the event that deflagration occurs in the dust collector, the pressure propagation through the duct work will close the No Return Valve. This prevents the deflagration from reaching any process equipment and also limits the risk of secondary explosions.

• Abort Gate: Abort gates are high speed dampers that contain a spring assisted blade and is typically held in place by an electromagnet. Their purpose is to minimize the risk of an explosion by diverting flame, spark, or debris from entering a facility through a return air system.

• Spark Detection & Extinguishing System: This method uses infrared sensors, typically located on the ductwork, to detect sparks or burning material in the ductwork upstream.

Secondary Event Protection

All the methods described previously are excellent options for managing primary explosions, but one of the most catastrophic outcomes of a combustible dust explosion is an un-controlled secondary explosion.

When a primary explosion happens, there may be a pressure wave that propagates through the plant. This will “kick up” the layer of ambient dust. If the explosion is not contained in the dust collection system using the methods previously outlined, this ambient dust in the air could come in contact with the primary explosion flame front. This results in an uncontrolled explosion in an occupied space.

To minimize the risk of secondary explosions, the first step should always be to expect perfect performance from your dust collection system. It is not acceptable to have a dust collection system that does not function properly. Another suggestion is to limit the amount of horizontal surfaces in your plant that cannot be regularly cleaned. Drop ceilings and in-accessible equipment are great examples of this.

There are many strategies that may fit your unique application or facility. We recommend to consult your local or state building codes and regulations before choosing your explosion venting strategy. Some areas will have specific regulations for fire safety and environmental safety, and you want to ensure you are meeting those guidelines. Here are some questions to consider before implementing an explosion venting strategy.

Questions to Consider

At U.S. Air Filtration, we have been eliminating the hazards of industrial dust for 35 years.
To learn more about how you can manage industrial dust at your facility contact us at 888-221-0312 or [email protected] to speak with an engineer

Shaker Filter Bags

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How Shaker Filter Bags Collect Dust

Shaker baghouses collect dust similar to reverse air baghouses. Dust collects on the inside surface of the shaker filter bags, and then clean air exits through the top of the bag. The main difference is how the bags cleaned.

How to Clean Shaker Filter Bags

Shaker baghouses are engineered so that filters are hung and tensioned from the top of the unit, and at the bottom they are attached to a tube sheet. Mechanically shaking the filter bags is what cleans them. Shaker baghouses only clean while the system is off-line. Shaker baghouse operation is simple and can be seen in applications where no compressed air is available.

Construction of Shaker Filter Bags

Fabric filter bags used in shaker baghouses are typically constructed with woven or light weight media options like polyester sateen, shaker felt, beane knit, and more. Treatments are dependent on a plant’s application and dust characteristics. The most common top and bottom configurations for shaker baghouses are below.

Most Common Top & Bottom Construction for a Shaker Baghouse

Top Load Baghouse: Grommet Top, Loop Top, Strap Top
Bottom Load Baghouse: Corded Cuff Bottom, Double Beaded Snap Band

If you would like to get a free media recommendation, check out our filter bag media quiz here. There is also a fabric characteristics sheet that you can download below. It takes a closer look at the most common filter bag medias used in the dust collection industry.

Dust Collector Filter Bags

Filter Bag Resources

To learn more about how to select the right filter bags, you can download our filter bag guide with the link below. The guide provides resources on key topics such as; dust properties, filter media, finishes and treatments, construction, and air-to-cloth ratio.

Looking to start with the basics? Watch this “Guide to Filter Media” video to learn more about the most common medias used in the industrial dust collection industry.

Guide to Filter Media

Are ready to get a set of filters? Check out our online product catalog below. You can also request a quote within 24 hours, call at 888-221-0132, or simply email [email protected]

Filter Bag Request a Quote

 

 

How Much Does a Dust Collector Cost?

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Summary: Small dust collectors for applications up to 1,000 CFM airflow cost between $100 up to $5,000 USD.  Pre-fab dust collection systems such as a bin vent or cartridge type collector cost between $10,000 and $80,000 USD. Pre-fab units accommodate airflow volumes between 2,000 and 10,000 CFM. Custom baghouse dust collectors or multiple module bin vents and cartridge collectors range between $50,000 to $1 million USD and more.

Watch Video: How Much Does a Dust Collector Cost?

 How Much Does a Dust Collector Cost


Table of Contents

  • What is a dust collector?
  • Dust Collector Cost
  • What Goes into the Price of Your Dust Collector
  • Dust Collector Filter Media
  • Electrical Controls or Accessories
  • Summary
  • Dust Collection Resources

What is a Dust Collector?

Dry dust collection systems remove airborne dust that generate during manufacturing or industrial processing.  Examples include woodworking, bulk powder processing, or food production.  Dust collectors range from small portable units to extensive custom turnkey systems.

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Dust Collector Cost

Small Dust Collector Cost

A small dust collector that is able to handle up to 750 or 1,000 cubic feet per minute (CFM) of airflow can cost between $100 up to $5,000.  These small retail units are ideal for ventilating two to three pieces of equipment (i.e. saw, sander, planer) for a small woodworking or metalworking shop.  Small units must be set up extremely close to the collection point. This reduces static pressure and fan size.  You can find these units at an online retailer or home improvement store.

Large Dust Collector Cost

Larger dust collection systems are needed to ventilate large scale processing equipment. These industrial dust collectors are found in some of the following commercial applications:

  • School woodshops
  • Metalworking facilities
  • Sandblasting
  • Chemical processing
  • Food processing
  • Cement production
  • Energy production
  • Mining
  • Foundries, and many others.

Large dust collectors are designed to handle a much larger dust loads, meet higher airflow, or specific temperature requirements.  Pre-fabricated dust collection systems like a bin vent or cartridge dust collector can handle airflow volumes between 2,000 and 10,000 cubic feet per minute (CFM).  Depending on the size of the unit, filter media, and the fan size, units can range between $10,000 – $80,000 USD.

Custom Dust Collector Cost

Custom turnkey, dust collection systems that require complete engineering can range between $50,000 – $1 million USD or more. These systems can include one more pulse jet baghouses, multiple modular bin vents, or several cartridge collectors.

What Goes into the Price of your Dust Collector

The price of your dust collection system is also determined by several variables outlined below.

Dust LoadUSAF CleanFlo Collector

Dust load is the amount or volume of dust in your work environment that must be cleared within a given time period.

 

Applications with higher dust loads require more filter media to remove airborne dust particulate.  This means you’ll need a dust collector with a larger footprint. This can drive up the overall cost of your dust collection system.  Applications that generate less than one or two 55 gallon drums of dust per day are usually good candidates for a small cartridge collector or bin vent.

Type of Dust

The properties of your dust particulate play an important role in the following:

  • Size of your system
  • Number of filters
  • Type of filter media
  • Filter treatments your application will need.
  • Air to Cloth Ratio
  • Fan Size
  • Temperature
  • Material Handling and Conveying

To understand the characteristics of your dust particulate, you can ask yourself the following questions.

Product

What is being filtered?  Does your product contain moisture or oil?  Products with moisture content greater than 25% are not suited for a dry dust collection system. Products containing hydrocarbons, including oils, may require the application of a special treatment to get optimal filtration.

Chemistry

Does your airstream or dust contain chemicals that could damage filter media?  Are there also acids or alkaline in the airstream?  When certain compounds are combined during processing, a chemical reaction can occur. This may require additional media treatment or coating to protect the filter bags from accelerated wear.

Abrasion

How abrasive is the dust that’s being filtered?  Consider the hardness of the material along with the shape of the dust.  The velocity of your airflow can also make your dust more abrasive.  Highly abrasive dust may require your housing be fabricated in stainless steel, titanium or other costly materials that are able to withstand long term wear.

Particle Size

What is the size of the dust particulate are you collecting? Depending on your emissions requirements, your application may require a special membrane. This would apply if your particulate is very fine.

Is your dust combustible?

Combustible dust can be defined as any fine material that has the ability to catch fire and explode when mixed with the proper concentration of air.  Examples of combustible dust include:

  • Wood
  • Food products such as grain, sugar, flour, starch, metals
  • Rubber
  • Chemicals
  • Pesticides
  • Plastics, and more.

OSHA and NFPA have created guidelines to protect your plant and employees from the risks of a serious explosion.  Also, be sure to review your state and local regulations for proper identification and management of combustible dust.

Applications filtering combustible dust will also need an explosion venting strategy. Explosion vents or Brixton latches are two common strategies that help reduce this risk. You may also need explosion isolation valves in the dust collection line. This helps prevent a deflagration from travelling back to the equipment should an event occurs inside the dust collector.

Dust Collector Filter Media

The type of filter media you choose impacts your system startup and long term maintenance costs. Polyester filter media is an ideal for applications with temperatures below 250°.  Polyester is affordable, highly efficient and readily available.

 

Other common filter medias include Aramid (Nomex©), Fiberglass, PPS, P84 and Teflon.  You can add treatments to  filter media to enhance it’s efficiency and performance. Treatment for your filter is dependent on your dust characteristics.  In addition, treatments can drive up the cost of your filter bags but also extend it’s life, reduce changeout’s and drive down long term maintenance costs.

Cartridge Dust Collector

Air to Cloth Ratio

Air to cloth ratio, also known as air to media ratio, is a measurement of the amount of cubic feet per minute of air passing through one square foot of filter media.

 

You can calculate air to cloth ratio based on the size and type of dust particulate you are filtering. It’s an important element in the design and size of your dust collection system.

 

Generally, the lower your air to cloth ratio, the better your system is at removing dust from the work environment.  However, if your air to cloth ratio is too low it can place unnecessary strain on your dust collector.  Systems that operate at a higher air to cloth ratio have a smaller footprint, size, and price than dust collectors operating at a lower air to cloth ratio.

Fan Size

Your dust load, CFM requirements, and static pressure measurements will determine the size of the fan that will pull dust through the system and turn the air.  Your dust collector’s location is relative to the work environment being ventilated and also impacts the size of your fan.  Systems installed close to the work environment can reduce the length of ducting and static pressure. As a result, a smaller fan may be required. The cost of a fan can vary depending on each of these factors.

Temperature

Applications operating above 250 degrees Fahrenheit may require more expensive filter media. These applications would need their filter to withstand long term exposure to high temperatures.

Material Handling & Conveying

Once your dust particulate has moved through your dust collection system and lands in the hopper, you’ll need to determine how to properly remove the dust. This ensures it doesn’t return into the airstream and plug up your system.  Drums are the most economical option. They perform well when handling waste material with light inlet dust loading.  Light inlet dust loading applies if you generate, at most, a one or two 55 gallon drum of dust per day.

 

Applications with higher dust loading requirements or those filtering non waste product, need an advanced system to convey material. This helps prevent the drum from overfilling, which can cause dust to back up or return into the hopper.  This can also result in a processing issue that will impact your dust collector’s performance.  In these situations you may need to upgrade from a drum to a larger dumpster, rotary or dump valve.

Rotary Valves

Rotary valves seal the bottom of your collector. They help prevent outside air from entering the system while allowing material to be continuously emptied from the hopper.  The cost to add a rotary valve to your dust collection system can vary between $3,000 and $5,000 USD.  

Pneumatic Conveying

Larger applications may also require a vacuum pneumatic conveying system. Their purpose is to vacuum material from the dust collector discharge to a common point.  For example, an application with five baghouses may include a common vacuum conveying system. It would help pull discharge material from all five baghouses to one common dust collector discharge area.

Paints, Coatings 

Applications with high moisture levels or chemical resistance may require an upgrade to epoxy paint. It can be applied to the interior and exterior of the dust collector. This helps to reduce long term wear of the system. Facilities located near an ocean, lake, or those that process caustic chemicals would use epoxy paint.

Unit Insulation

Insulation may also be required if you’re airstream temperature is high and must remain above the dew point in gas form. This eliminates the risk of moisture and condensation. Airflows with high moisture content can cause performance issues with your filter bags. This can include plugging of the system and inefficient filtration. Applications requiring insulation include ventilation of exhaust air coming off boilers, burners during metal forming, and similar processes.

Electric Controls or Accessories

Most baghouses, cartridge collectors, and bin vents come standard with an electrical control panel. This powers your pulse cleaning system and your fan separately.  Most experts recommend to integrate your control panel into a starter panel. This powers your pulse cleaning and fan at the same time.

 

Installation of starter panels can be done at any desired location in your plant regardless of the distance to the dust collection system. Starter panels protect your system from surges or motor damage.  While the addition of a starter panel can add to the initial cost of your system, the ease and added safety it offers make up for startup costs.

Dust Collection Design Considerations 3

Is an OEM Dust Collector like Torit Right For Me?

We recently took a survey asking customers their attitude and preference towards OEM vs. aftermarket dust collection products. Here’s what we learned:

  • 15% of buyers prefer OEM dust collector parts and equipment exclusively
  • 85% of buyers like the option to purchase OEM or aftermarket dust collector parts and equipment
  • 65% of buyers who purchase aftermarket said they get the same performance as an OEM at a more affordable price and/or don’t care about having brand name components.
  • Another 50% prefer aftermarket products because they are more affordable
  • Of the 15% of buyers who only purchase OEM,  the most popular reason for choosing OEM is because they believe they can be trusted to perform long term (33%).

If budget is not a factor for you and you are willing to pay more for OEM then this may be the right solution for you.  However if you are looking to get the same long term performance from a dust collection system as an OEM and don’t want to pay a higher price for a brand name, then a U.S. Air Filtration system may be a fit.

Summary of Dust Collector Cost

Selecting and pricing out a dust collection system involves consideration of each variable above.  Understanding each of these variables is critical to ensuring your dust collector performs efficiently for many years to come while also creating a clean and safe work environment. Each dust collection application is unique so it is possible that applications with very similar product characteristics or volume may require a system that is different in price and size.

 

To ensure a successful solution, consult with a dust collection engineering and manufacturing company with extensive design and manufacturing experience.  An experienced dust collection engineering firm can help you engineer a system customized to your unique application requirements.

 

If you have any questions unique to your application, give us a call at 888-221-0312. You can also email [email protected]. In addition, below are some related videos and resources that may help.

Dust Collection Resources

Baghouse Filter Bag Top and Bottom Configurations

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Filter bag configurations can vary from one dust collector to another. Baghouse filter top and bottom configurations will be dependent on the type of baghouse dust collector you have. The most common types of baghouses are pulse-jet and plenum pulse, reverse air, and shaker.

Dust Collector

Pulse-Jet and Plenum Pulse Baghouse

Pulse-jet and Plenum Pulse baghouses collect dust on the outside of the filter. Dust-laden gas floods the dust collector, and clean air exits through the inside of the bag while dust particles collect on the outside filter surface. A pulse-jet is one of the most common styles of baghouses will see across a variety of industries and applications. The most common types of filter top and bottom configurations in this style of baghouse are:

Top Load Baghouse Filter: Double Beaded Snap Band Top, Disc Bottom
Bottom Load Baghouse Filter: Raw Top, Disc Bottom

Reverse Air Baghouse

In reverse air baghouses dust will collect on the inside surface of the filter. Air enters the dirty side (inlet) of the baghouse and flows upwards through the bag. The bag filters and collects the dust on the inside, then clean air exits through the top of the bag. Reverse air baghouses are typically seen in large air handling applications like energy.

Top Configuration: Compression Band with Cap & Hook
Bottom Configuration: Compression Band, Corded, Double Beaded Snap Band

Shaker Baghouse

The way shaker baghouses collect dust is similar to reverse air baghouses. Dust is collected on the inside of surface of the filter. Dust particulate is filtered and collected on the inside of the filter, then clean air exits through the top of the bag. The difference in this system is in how the bags are cleaned. Filter bags are hung and tensioned from the top of the unit, and at the bottom they are attached to a tube sheet. As the name suggests, you clean the bags by mechanically shaking them. Shaker baghouses are generally simple, and can be seen in applications where there is no compressed air available.

Top Configuration: Grommet Top, Loop Top, Strap Top
Bottom Configuration: Corded Cuff Bottom, Double Beaded Snap Band

Filter bag construction and dimensions vary between industries, applications, dust collector types and manufacturers. Here are some of the filter bag top and bottom configurations you may come across.

Top and Bottom Construction Filter Bag Configurations

Most Common Baghouse Filter Configurations:

  • Double Beaded Snap Band
  • Disc (with or without wear cuff)
  • Sewn Flat
  • Open Hemmed
  • Raw Edge

Least Common Baghouse Filter Configurations

  • Disc with zipper
  • Spout
  • A-hanger
  • Flange
  • Belt Loops
  • O-Ring

Other Baghouse Filter Configurations

  • Envelope
  • Grommet
  • Strap
  • Loop
  • Snap Ring
  • Corded
  • Double Disc
  • Compression with Cap and Hook

Baghouse Filter Resources

To learn more about how to select the right filter bags , you can download our filter bag eBook with the link below. The ebook provides resources on key topics such as; dust properties, filter media, finishes and treatments, construction, and air-to-cloth ratio.

Filter Bag eBook

Video: Guide to Filter Media

Guide to Filter Media

Find Your Baghouse Filter

Are you ready to find your filter? If you are looking for a quote, click on the link below to submit your information. We’ll get a quote back to you within 24 hours.

Request A Quote: Filter Bags

How to Replace Your Dust Collector Diaphragm Valve

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Is your dust collector showing signs of trouble? It could be your diaphragm valve.

As your dust collector goes through it’s life cycle, your parts start to wear out. Diaphragms are one of the 5 most commonly replaced dust collector parts. These are the common warning signs of trouble and how you can replace a diaphragm valve.

Common Symptoms of a Worn Out Diaphragm Valve

  • Rubber has crack or holes in it
  • Diaphragm kit is pitted, allowing air to leak through
  • Any holes tears or imperfections indicate it’s time to change it out
  • Is your spring broken? It’s time to replace your diaphragm valve.

Once you’ve diagnosed your issue, you’ll need to fix it. Below is a short video guide that provides step-by-step instructions on how to replace a diaphragm valve.

Replace a Diaphragm Valve Video Transcript:

Hi, this is Bob with US air filtration. And today I’m going to show you how to change out the diaphragm inside a solenoid pulse valve.

Pulse Valve Types

As you can see here pulse valves come in a lot of different sizes and shapes. Some valves have coils on the top, and some don’t. Pulse valves can have two diaphragms or one. Others have couplings, threads, or flange connectors. But the process of changing out the diaphragm is really very similar in all of them.

First Steps to Replacing a Diaphragm Valve

I’m going to show you today, on this particular valve, how to change out the diaphragm.

First thing that we’re going to do is remove the bolts that are holding on the top of the belt. I’m using a socket set and I’m going to loosen these up. Once I get all the valves loose I can pull off the top.

I’ll tell you, sometimes when these valves have been sitting, especially out in the sun for a while getting this top piece off isn’t really easy. You may need to take a screwdriver and a hammer and just tap it lightly there where the rubber is to help get the top off.

But once you get the top off you can remove the spring and you can peel off the diaphragm.

Diaphragm Valve Bleed Hole / Pin

Now in some pulse valves, well in all pulse valves, there’s a little bleed hole. And often times, there’s a pin this particular one, has a little pin right here that this allows the air pressure to equalize between the two halves of the valve.

It’s really important that we don’t block this hole or damage this pin when we put the valve back together.

New Diaphragm

Once we pull off the old diaphragm kit, we can grab the new diaphragm. And the first thing we want to do is find out where that bleed hole is in the diaphragm. Here, it’s this hole right here. We’re gonna place that right over the pin.

The teflon disc or it’s a rubber disc on your diaphragm goes down so that it seats up against this part of the valve. It’s not a bad idea to look and make sure that there’s no damage to the the body of the valve.

Typically though these aluminum bodies; it’s really hard to damage them. I don’t usually see problems with them. It’s usually the diaphragms that go.

We’re gonna line up the hole with the bleed hole. And make sure our holes line up and put our diaphragm back then.

Then we need to make sure that we have the spring that comes with the repair kit that goes back on top of the diaphragm and then we’re gonna put the top back on.

Now just like I mentioned, with this bleed hole, there’s a place where the bleed hole on this top cover goes. We need to make sure we’ve lined that bleed hole up with the bleed hole here.

If we block it, the valve is not gonna work. Or if you don’t put it on correctly, and there’s a pin, you’ll squash the pin. And then you’re gonna have to buy a new valve just to replace this little pin.

We’re gonna line this up. And I can kind of feel it set on the right. And then we’re just going to tighten down all the bolts.

Tighten Bolts

Now once I get everything finger tightened I want to go ahead and tighten these bolts down.

If I don’t tighten the bolts down properly, and you don’t get this clamping this diaphragm together, you’re gonna get a leak outside of the valve.

The best practice is, with your ratchet, is to tighten the bolt on one side and then go to the opposite side and tighten it down. And then just keep going about 180 degrees so that your getting a nice even pressure.

Upper Smaller Diaphragm

Okay now we need to do the little diaphragm.

I’m gonna pull off this coil, which I could have done before. And actually if you have electrical wires connected to this, it helps to pull off the coil.

I might add too, before you start this you need to turn off the compressed air to your valve. Or as soon as you start releasing this, it’ll just start blowing everywhere

Okay. So to change out this upper smaller diaphragm we need to loosen up these four bolts here with an allen wrench.

I’m going to loosen all of these up and then remove these bolts.

Okay once all the bolts are loose, you can lift off the top. Once again, there’s a spring and the diaphragm. You’ll grab the new diaphragm with the little metal side down.

Again there’s a little tiny pin right there for the bleed hole. Every diaphragm is gonna have a bleed hole somewhere that you need to make sure you line up.

There are a few types of valves that the bleed hole is actually in the body of the diaphragm.

In those cases you don’t have to worry about it too much. But a lot of valves have these pins.

So, I’m gonna line this bleed hole up and put it on. And take the new spring and put it on. And then I’m going to make sure that my hole right under here, where the bleed hole goes, is gonna go right over that bleed hole.

I can feel it seat down on there. And again I’m gonna tighten the bolts.

Everything’s good and tight. Put our coil back on.

And now we’re ready to turn the compressed air back on, and test our valve to make sure it all works.

 

Related Resources:

Dust Collector Change Out Check List